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高三英语 Module 9 Unit 4 Grammar 1

牛津高中英语教学设计

单  元:Unit 4 Behind beliefs

板  块:Grammar and usage 1

Thoughts on the design:

Teaching aims:

    After learning“Analysis of complicated sentences”, the students will be able to understand the basic structure of simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences and complex-compound sentences. And they will be able to combine simple sentences into complicated ones and develop their reading skills on analyzing complicated sentences.

Teaching procedures:

Step 1    Members of sentences

1. What makes a sentence?

Generally, sentences are made up of two main parts: subject and predict.

Subject is what the sentence is about.

Predicate tells us something about the subject and always include a verb.

[Explanation]

明确句子的基本成分:主语和谓语。

2. Identify the subjects and the predicates of the following sentences.

1) Wewill have an exam next week.

    S         P

2) The huntergot lost in the jungle.

      S            P

3) Another idiom using the animal, kill the fatted calf,   means to have a large celebration.

                      S                                 P

[Explanation]

学生练习划分句子的主谓。

3. Members of sentences

To be specific, the members of sentences include S(subject 主语), P(predicate or predicate verb 谓语或谓语动词),O(object 宾语),C(complement 补语),A(attribute 定语),A(adverbial 状语), A(appositive 同位语)。

[Explanation]

呈现句子基本成分,为下一步简单句5种基本句型的划分及复合句分析做好准备。

Step 2    Simple sentences

1. Study the following six sentences and find out how many subject and predicate each sentence has.

1) The guest   has just arrived.  

2) Mr. Black is  English.

3) Mr. Black  is  a doctor

4) She  picked  a flower.   

5) The teachertaught us a new song.

6) Parents  should encourage  their children  to get close to nature.

(Answer: Each sentence contains one subject and one predicate)

If a sentence contains one subject and one predicate, it is called a simple sentence.

2. structure of the simple sentence:  subject + predicate

[Explanation]

呈现简单句例句,让学生明确简单句的概念。

3. Use the terms of members of sentences mentioned above to identify the sentence patterns.

  (Teacher will do the first two to make sure the Ss understand how to analyze the rest.) [PPT9]

1) The guest   has just arrived.   SV

2) Mr. Black is  English.  SVC

3) Mr. Black  is  a doctor.  SVC

4) She  picked  a flower.   SVO

5) The teachertaughtusa new song. SVOO

6) Parents  should encourage  their children  to get close to nature. SVOC

[Explanation]

让学生复习5种简单句基本句型。

4. Put the following words into sentences according to the sentence pattern required in the brackets.

1) turned   trees   green.  (SVC)

2) the   car  in  the  end   stopped  (SV)

3) the  left  the  open  visitor  gate  (SVOC)

4) he is looking for his glasses  (SVO) [PPT11]

5) my birthday me friend a present gave  (SVOO)

Keys:

1) Trees turned green.

2) The car stopped in the end.

3) The visitor left the gate open.

4) He is looking for his glasses.

5) My friend gave me a birthday present.

Step 3    Compound sentences

1. Study the following 7 sentences and find out how they are different from simple sentences.

1) Studying idioms can help improve your comprehension, andby learning enough important idioms, you can develop a high level of competence in your communication skills.

2) The Internet is considered by many to be a source of information, and it is also thought of as a means of entertainment, but some people regard it as a monster.

3) Take a map with you, andyouwill find your way easily.

4) Take a map with you, or youll get lost.

5) Nobodyanswered the door, soIleft.

6) Some peoplehave everything while othershave none.

7) Not only did he believe the story but also he persuaded others to believe it.

(The students may answer: There are more than one simple sentences in each sentence. There is a word such as ‘and’ between the two sentences.)

 

Teacher can tell Ss: If two simple sentences are combined together with words like “and”, “but” etc., they form a compound sentence. The linking words are called “coordinators”. The simple sentences are then called “clauses”. Each clause can stand on its own.(如果两个简单句由“and”, “but”等词连接在一起,它们就构成了并列句。这些连接词被称为“连词”。这些简单句就被称为“从句”。每个从句都能独立存在。)

[Explanation]

观察一组句子,引导学生得出并列句的概念

2. The structure of compound sentence:

 Coordinate Clause1 + and/but/or/…+Coordinate Clause 2

3. Practice

Combine the two simple sentences into a compound sentence with the coordinator in the brackets.

1) Pure salt will not lose its flavour. Impure salt will lose its flavour. (but)

2) Idioms are an important part of language. They are used in everything from literature to films and newspapers. (and)

3) Would you like to hand in another paper? Shall I give you an F? (or)

4) The day breaks. The birds are singing. (for)

5) He studied hard. He got high marks. (thus)

6) Think it over. You will find a way out. (and)

7) This problem is very important. It is difficult to solve.( Not only… but also…)

Keys:

1) Pure salt will not lose its flavour but impure salt will (lose its flavour).

2) Idioms are an important part of language and they are used in everything from literature to films and newspapers.

3) Would you like to hand in another paper or shall I give you an F?

4) The day breaks, for the birds are singing.

5) He studied hard, thus, he got high marks.

6) Think it over and you will find a way out.

7) Not only is this problem very important but also it is difficult to solve.

[Explanation]

并列句运用:让学生把两个简单句连成一个并列句。

Step 4    Complex sentences

1. Compare the following two sentences and tell the structures of them.

1) An idiom   is a group of words or an expression and the meaning of the expression  often cannot be understood by looking at the meanings of the separate words in it.

2) An idiom   is a group of words or an expressionwhose meaning  often cannot be understood by looking at the meanings of the separate words in it.

 

(The Ss may list the structure of the first one: subject + predicate + and + subject + predicate.

As to the second sentence, the Ss may have difficulty.)

 

Teacher can help the Ss to find that “whose meaning  often cannot be understood by looking at the meanings of the separate words in it” serves as an attribute of the word ‘expression’.

 

Look at more examples:

1) Unless you recognize when an idiom is being used, it is easy to misunderstand what you read or hear spoken. (Underlined part serves as the adverbial.)

2) There are lots of examples of idioms where animals are used to create an image.

(Underlined part serves as the attribute.)

3) This means that since the Bible was translated into English centuries ago, many Hebrew or Greek idioms have become part of the English language.

(Underlined part serves as the object.)

4) An idiom is a combination of words, whose meaning often cannot be understood by looking separately at the meanings of the words that make it up

    (Underlined part serves as the attribute.)

 

A sentence used as the subject, object, attribute, adverbial or appositive of another sentence (main clause) is called a ‘subordinate clause’. A complex sentence is made up of a main clause and one or more subordinate clause. They are linked by subordinators such as because, when, where, if, since, that, unless, whereas, whose, while, although, etc. The complex sentence structure: main clause +subordinate clause

(一个句子充当另一个句子的组成部分,如主语、宾语、定语、状语、同位语等,这样结构的句子叫主从复合句。充当某一成分的叫从句subordinate clause,带有从句的句子叫主句main clause。主句和从句由从属连词subordinator连接。)

 

[Explanation]

复合句概念

2. Activity: Find complex sentences from the text.

  Divide the students into groups of four and hold a competition to see which group can find the most complex sentences in 2 minutes. (The group can divide the text into 4 parts and each member search in one part to speed up.)

[Explanation]

复合句辨认:找出课文中的复合句

 

Step 5    Complex-compound sentences

1. Study the following sentence and try to work out its structure.

We have tried to train the young people who were hired last month,

                                     subordination

but they are not doing their best to learn.

    coordination

Sometimes we have complex-compound sentences. This happens when coordination and subordination occur in the same sentence.

The complex-compound sentence:  the simple sentence + and/but/or + the complex sentence

[Explanation]

并列复合句概念

Step 6    Consolidation

1. Revise the general structure of sentences:

the simple sentence: subject + predicate

the compound sentence: coordinate clause +and/but/or + coordinate clause

the complex sentence: main clause +subordinate clause

the complex-compound sentence: the simple sentence +and/but/or +the complex sentence

[Explanation]

总结归纳,长难句的结构

2. Ask Ss to do Exercise A on P57 individually. And then check answers.

[Explanation]

通过练习A,综合练习长难句的判断

3. Ask Ss to do Exercise B on P57. Check answers.

[Explanation]

通过练习B,综合练习复合句运用。

Step 7    Homework

Workbook P127 Exercises C1, C2


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