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高三英语 Module 9 Unit 4 Reading 1

牛津高中英语教学设计

单元:Unit 4 Behind beliefs

板块:Reading 1

Teaching aims:

After learning the text, the students will be able to gain some knowledge about idioms especially the Biblical idioms. Students are expected to practice and reinforce their reading comprehension and improve their overall abilities.

Teaching procedures:

Step1    Lead-in

1. Introduce two famous sentences quoted from Confucian Analects(《论语》).The students can find two Chinese idioms in these two sentences.

2. Introduce Confucian Analects briefly, especially its effects on our history and culture, emphasizing that now many Chinese idioms we often use are from Confucian Analects.

3. Introduce a sentence which contains an English idiom. This sentence is quoted from OLD TESTAMENT (《圣经•旧约》).

4. Then Introduce Bible briefly, emphasizing that many basic concepts and principles of Western culture have come down from the Bible, and many common English phrases and expressions have their origin in the Bible as well. Then lead to the topic of this lesson.

1.       

5. Biblical idioms in English.

[Explanation]

英语老师反串语文老师,学生一定会感到很新鲜有趣。出自《论语》的两个成语是学生们耳熟能详的。关于《论语》对中国文化历史乃至世界的影响,学生们应该是略知一二。由此进行同类比较,引出一个出自《圣经》的英语习语以及对于《圣经》的简单介绍。水到渠成地导入本课主题“圣经习语”。

Step 2    Fast reading

1. Scan the text and listen to the recording of the text. Think about the following 3 questions:

1) What is an idiom?

2) What language was the Bible first written in?

3) What idiom is often used to describe children?

2. Ask some students to answer the 3 questions.

Keys: 1) An idiom is a group of words or an expression whose meaning often can not be understood by looking at the meanings of the separate words in it.

2) In Hebrew.

3) “Apple of their parents’ eye”.

3.  Discuss the structure of the text.

The text can be divided into 4 parts. Discuss how to divide it in pairs with the help of the main ideas of each part.

1. What is an idiom?   (Para______)

2. Why does the Bible have a lot of idiom? (Para______)

3. What are the features of Biblical idioms? (Para______)

4. Why should we learn idioms well? (Para______)

Key: part 1 (para1)

      Part 2 (para2)

      Part3 (para3-6)

      Part 4 (para7)                                 

让学生带着问题配合录音快速阅读课文,熟悉文章的话题及内容布局。因为是快速阅读后的结构分析,所以教师提供段意降低难度,让学生比较容易的将课文分成几部分,为下一步精读作准备。

Step 3    Detailed reading

1. Read paragraph 1 and 2 again carefully. Try to answer some T/F questions.

  a. The meanings of an idiom are always the same as the meanings of its components.

b. You can easily misunderstand a sentence if you don’t recognize an idiom is being used.

c. The original meaning of Biblical idioms has never changed.

Keys:

a. The meanings of an idiom are always the same as the meanings of its components.  (F)

Example:

A: I think it was Jason who stole my document.
B: Fat chance! (微小的机会;极少的可能)
A: He’s the only one who left here late.
B: I know him. He’ll never do that sort of thing.

b题)

b. You can easily misunderstand a sentence if you don’t recognize an idiom is being used. (T)

c. The original meaning of Biblical idioms has never changed. (F)

Examples:

“by and by” originally mean immediately, but now it means before long.

““stone will cry out”the stones will cry out” used to mean cannot control one’s feelings. Now it means that people will know it if you do something bad.

What are the features of Biblical idioms?  

a. Biblical idioms often came from stories.

b. Some idioms from the Bible that use animals.

c. Another focus of Biblical idioms is often things related to agricultural life or food.

2. Read Para 3-6 carefully and answer the following questions: 4. Read paragraphs 3-6 carefully and answer the following questions.

1) Why did Biblical idioms often come from stories?

2) What does “feet of clay” mean?

3) Which animals are featured in the idioms in the article?

4) Which examples included in the text are related to agricultural life or food?

Keys:

1) 1) Because the idiom itself was the expression that underlined the moral of a story and gave audiences a picture to help them understand the story better.

  2)  2) There is a hidden weakness in somebody whom we admire or respect.

3) 3) A calf.

4) “reap what we sow” and “the apple of my eye”.

 

3. Read paragraph 7 again carefully and try to list the benefits of learning idioms.

Keys: 1) improving your comprehension

       2) Developing a high level of competence in your communication skills

       3) Better understanding and appreciating the history and culture of English-speaking countries.

4. How many idioms have been mentioned in this article? What are they?  How many idioms have been mentioned in this article? What are they?

 

Keys: 6. by and by, feet of clay, to see the handwriting on the wall, kill the fatted calf, reap  

what we sow and apple of their parents.

5. 1)

1)      Debbie’s father always warned her to be nice to people she did not know, because we __________________

2) Sarah’s mother adores her; Sarah is_______________.

3) Wilson was disappointed when he learnt that the coach had ________.

4) She knew it might take a long time for her teammates to change their minds, but she believed that the new plan would work _________.

5) When my brother came back home from his trip to Europe, we ____________.

6) After his company suffered millions of dollars in losses, Joe _________ and left the company.

Keys: .1) reap what we sow    2) the apple of her mother’s eye   3) feet of clay

4) by and by        5) killed the fatted calf     6) saw the handwriting on the wall

[Explanation]

按照段落顺序带着不同的任务层层精读,有回答问题,有正误判断,有填空等。必要的地方给出具体的例子,有课内知识也有课外补充,充分激发学生的兴趣。将课文中提到的习语正确用在适当的语境中这一环节则强调现学现用,有助于学生从被动输入到主动输出,理解运用能力能够得以提高。

Step 4    Practice  (可作机动)

Since learning idioms has some many benefits. Let’s learn more idioms.

Try to infer the meanings of the following idioms by analyzing the hidden clues and then use them in certain situations.

at the top of a hat (immediately)   see eye to eye (to have the same opinion as someone else)

know the ropes (to know how to do sth.—this idiom refers to the fact that a sailor knows how to make ropes for sailing)    child’s play (an easy job)  on a shoestring (having very little money)

a feather in (my) cap (something that you can be proud of—this idiom came from the native American Indians who usually gave a feather to someone who was brave in a battle)

 (1) My sister and I agree about everything from fashion to politics. We ______ on almost anything. (2) Alex had very little money when he started his first business. In fact he only had a few hundred   

pounds. He started his business ______, but he was very successful.

(3) When her friends call, Megan will drop everything to go and meet them. She will leave _____.

(4) If you have any questions, ask Ian. He has worked here for 25 years, so he really ______. No one knows more about his company than Ian.

(5) He is very experienced in this kind of problem. Helping you solve the problem will be ______ to him.

(6) Herbert won a scholarship to Duke University. Over 500 students applied for the scholarship. It was ______ when he won.

Keys:

(1) see eye to eye

(2) on a shoestring

(3) at the top of a hat

(4) knows the ropes

(5) child’s play

(6) a feather in his cap

[Explanation]

该部分作为机动环节,根据学生和课堂的实际情况可选用。旨在扩展学生的知识面,进一步领略学习英语习语的乐趣。

Step 5    Revision and Consolidation

Fill in the following form with proper words according to your comprehension of the text.

The definition of an idiom

A group of words or an expression whose meaning can only be understood by looking at the  (1) ______________ meaning of the words in it

Using a number of words to represent a single object, person or concept, etc

The (2) ________

of learning idioms

(3)______________ your comprehension

Developing a high level of competence in your communication skills

Better understanding and (4) ______________ the history and culture of English-speaking countries

The (5)  ________

of Biblical Idioms

The

 

Bible

(6) ______ of image

(8)___________

(9)______________

stories-related

Feet of clay

A hidden weakness

(7)___________

Kill the fatted calf

Having a large celebration

about agricultural life or food- related

Apple of their parents

Meaning their parents love their children very much and be proud of them.

Reap what we sow

Small kindnesses often bring us a rich reward while small offences can (10)_______ in disaster

 

Keys:

1. whole/complete  2. benefit       3. Improving    4. appreciating   5. origin

6. Types       7. Animal-related   8. Examples     9. Meanings     10. result

[Explanation]

这是一篇原创的任务型阅读,以本课课文为基础,紧扣高考要求,当场完成,既能让学生回顾本课所学内容又能在字词方面加以训练,起到复习作用的同时进一步巩固提升,一举两得。

Step 6    Activity   Role-play

1. Preparation: All the students are divided into several groups of four. Give each group a Biblical idiom.

2. Requirements

1) Work in groups. Make up a conversation and create a proper situation in which this idiom can be used.

2) You have 4 minutes for preparation and then perform the conversation in front of your classmates.

3) While performing, you should try to provide enough information so that other students can guess the meaning of your idiom.

4) As audience, you should try to understand the idiom with the help of the conversation, and judge whether it is used properly.

5) The idioms have been given to you during break time.

3. Role-play

 

[Explanation]

用一种更加主动灵活的方式了解更多的圣经习语。在分组活动并进行表演的过程中,学生的团队合作精神、口语表达能力、听力理解能力都将得到锻炼提高。

Step 7    Homework

1. Ask students to read the text again after class and underline the expressions or sentences which are not clear about.

2. Encourage students to find more idioms or Biblical idioms with the help of library or Internet.

[Explanation]

复习课文内容,并为下一课时做好预习工作。进一步培养学生自我学习研究的能力。

附:上课前将下列出自《圣经》的习语分发给学生(可选用其中若干),每小组一条,供小组活动时使用。

1 ▲打空气 ( beating the air )出自《新约·哥林多前书》9章。

〔原文〕 所以我奔跑,不像无定向的。我斗拳,不像打空气的。〔简释〕 比喻白费力气。

2 ▲归他永远的家 ( go to one’s long home )出自《旧约·传道书》12章。

〔原文〕 人所愿的也都废掉,因为人归他永远的家。〔简释〕 指死亡。

3 ▲在自己的葡萄树、无花果树下 ( Under one’s vine and fig tree )出自《旧约·列王记上》4章。又见《弥迦书》4章和《撒迦亚书》10章。

〔原文〕所罗门在世的日子,从但到别是巴的犹大人和以色列人,都在自己的葡萄树下和无花果树下安然居住。〔简释〕 比喻安居乐业。

4 ▲肉中刺 ( thorn in the flesh )出自《新约·哥林多后书》12章。

〔原文〕又恐怕我因所得的启示甚大,就过于自高,所以有一根刺加在我肉体上,就是撒但的差役,要攻击我,免得我过于自高。

〔简释〕 比喻烦恼的根源。

5 ▲自己眼中的梁木 (A Beam in one’s eye)出自《新约·马太福音》7章。又见《路加福音》6章。

〔原文〕为什么看见你弟兄眼中有刺,却不想自己眼中有梁木呢?你自己眼中有梁木,怎能对你弟兄说,容我去掉你眼中的刺呢?〔简释〕 比喻自身存在的严重缺陷。

6 ▲把房子盖在沙土上 ( built the house upon the sand )出自《新约·马太福音》7章。

〔原文〕凡听见我这话不去行的,好比一个无知的人,把房子盖在沙土上。

〔简释〕 比喻基础不牢固。
 

7 ▲犹大之吻 (A Judas’ Kiss)出自《新约·马太福音》26章

〔原文〕那卖耶稣的,给了他们一个暗号,说:“我与谁亲嘴,谁就是他。你们可以拿住他。”犹大随即到耶稣跟前说:“请拉比安!”就与他亲嘴。耶稣对他说:“朋友,你来要做的事,就做罢。”于是那些人上前,下手拿住耶稣。

〔简释〕 比喻可耻的叛卖、变节行为。

8 ▲看到果子可知树 (The tree is known by its fruit)出自《新约·马太福音》12章。

〔原文〕你们或以为树好,果子也好;树坏,果子也坏。因为看到果子,就可以知道树。

〔简释〕 比喻观其言行可知其人。

9 ▲便雅悯那一份 ( Benjamin’s mess )出自《旧约·创世纪》43章。

〔原文〕约瑟把他面前的食物分出来,送给他们,但便雅悯所得的比别人多五倍。

〔简释〕 英语指“最大的份额”。

10. ▲背起他的十字架 ( bear one’s cross )出自《新约·马太福音》16章,又见《马可福音》8章,《路加福音》23章。

〔原文〕于是耶稣对门徒说,若有人要跟从我,就当舍己,背起他的十字架,来跟从我。
〔简释〕 比喻忍受苦难。

11. ▲把珍珠丢在猪前 ( cast pearl before Swine )自《新约·马太福音》7章。

〔原文〕不要把圣物给狗,也不要把你们的珍珠丢在猪前,恐怕他践踏了珍珠,转过来咬你们。

〔简释〕 比喻把珍宝送给不识货的人,明珠暗投。

12. doubting Thomas (怀疑的托马斯) 源自《圣经·新约·约翰福音》第20章。该篇讲到耶稣复活后出现在众人面前,十二门徒之一的托马斯没有亲眼见到,声称除非看到耶稣手上的钉痕,用手探入他的肋旁,否则不信他已复活。后来人们用“doubting Thomas”指那些不肯轻易相信别人的人。

13. clean hands (洁净的手)

源自《圣经·旧约·约伯记》第17章。“He that hath clean hands shall be stronger and stronger.”(“手洁的人将会愈有力。”)。现多与come out with、 with 或have 等词连用,表示“廉洁、清白”。

14. as one man (一致地)

这是英语中最古老的成语之一,源自《圣经·旧约·士师记》第20章。“So all the people got them up as one man.”(“所有人都团结起来如同一个人。”) 现仍表示“(全体)一致地”。


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