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高一英语 Module 1 Unit3 Grammar 2

 

Teaching Module 1 Unit 3 Grammar 2

Teaching aims:

1. After reviewing the usage of intonation, the students will be able to learn how to read question tags;

2. After learning the forms of the question tags, the students will learn what question tags are, and in what situations they are used;

3. They will be told how to use different intonations at the end of the sentences to express different meanings, and how to form question tags.

Teaching procedures:

Step 1 Lead-in

Good morning. The bell isn’t ringing, is it? Let’s have a free talk. Today I’ m wearing a new dress. I want to feel good and look good. I also find one of you wearing a new sweater.

He is very smart, isn’t he? OK, the bell is ringing, isn’t it? Let’s begin our class, shall we?

Today we’ll learn question tags.

1.肯定的陈述句+否定的附加疑问句。

  He is very smart, isn’t he?

2.否定的陈述句+肯定的附加疑问句。

 The bell isn’t ringing, is it?

3. 祈使句+附加疑问句。

 Let’s begin our class, shall we?

Please read the sentences on the screen in a falling intonation and a rising intonation, will you?

1.  a.  ↘ Yes.    ———agreement

b.↗ Yes.     ———question

2.  a.  ↗  All right. 

b. ↘ All right.  

3.  a.      ↘Thank you.

b. ↗ Thank you.

4.  a.    ↘ Good morning.

b. ↗ Good morning.

 

Do you think the sentences have the same meaning in different intonations?

No. They have different meanings.

Look at the screen.

1.a. Yes.——降调的“Yes.”表示同意对方的观点。

b. Yes.——升调的“Yes?”表示疑问,意为“真的吗?”“是吗?”。

在回答对方的呼唤时使用,意为“什么事?”或者“怎么啦?”

2. a. All right.——询问是否一切正常。

b. All right.——表示一切正常。

3. a. Thank you.——表示正式、严肃的感谢。

b. Thank you.——这是出于礼貌而说的客气话。

4. a. Good morning.——这是比较正式的问候。

b. Good morning.——熟悉的朋友之间较随意的问候方式。

[Explanation]

本环节在上课之前,教师走进教室用肢体语言和在铃声要响之前的语境中第一次口头呈现本节课的语法项目。用几个简单的课堂用语引出附加疑问句的三种类型。附加疑问句的语调在此语法项目中起着至关重要的作用。用最为简洁的日常用语来引入语调的学习。预设情景,引出主题,发挥引入的三个作用,即引起兴趣、宣告主题和推进课程。(PPT4—6首先呈现口语中出现的附加疑问句的内容,然后点击展现附加疑问句的类型,教师边展现边用正确的语调读出,然后用不同的语调简要读出几个日常用语中所遇见的情景。)

 

Step 2 Intonation

We should know that reading English in correct intonation is very important.

Let’s look at a question tag on the screen. How should we read the sentences?

You still go to the gym every day, don’t you?

You still go to the gym every day, don’t you? ↘

You still go to the gym every day, don’t you? ↗

1.      When we use a question tag to ask for agreement, we expect the other person to agree with us. The question tag has a rising intonation.

2.      When we use a question tag to ask for confirmation, we are actually asking about something we are not sure about. The question tag has a rising intonation.

[Explanation]

本节课的设计思路为从情景、规则到语感的高中英语语法教学思路,优化语言输入,可以激发语感形成。所以语音语调在这一环节简要介绍,为最后的语感形成作好铺垫。在外语教学中,语感被认为是一种重要的外语能力。新课程标准提倡教师要引导学生用观察归纳和实践的方法学习语言知识,感悟语言功能,从而提高语言的综合运用能力。(PPT7—8)

 

Step 3 Presentation

1. Please look at the pictures and read the sentences in correct intonation.

  Wow! I think this blouse will make me look slim, won’t it?

  This is really difficult but I feel so strong, don’t I?

  You must get enough sleep to stay healthy, mustn’t you?

  Eating more fruit makes me feel better, doesn’t it?

2. Read the dialogue and pay attention to the underlined sentences.

                       A Dirty Car

     John, Peter and Mark are brothers. Their father has a new car, and they clean it for him, aren’t they? It must have just rained, and the car is very dirty, isn’t it? John is looking at it, and he is talking to Peter.

John:  The car has hardly been cleaned for a few days, has it?

Peter:  No, it hasn’t. It’s very dirty.

John:  Someone ought to clean it today, oughtn’t they/shouldn’t they?

Peter:  Mark has to clean it, doesn’t he? It must be his turn, isn’t it?

John:  No, he cleaned it last time. It’s your turn.

Peter:  No, it isn’t. You always clean it after Mark.

John:  Oh dear, is it really my turn? In that case, I’ll clean it tomorrow.

Peter:  Clean it now, will you? Only lazy people say they’ll work tomorrow, don’t they?

John:  Then I’ll clean it the day after tomorrow.

Peter:  You are lazy. You ought to be ashamed. I think you should enjoy working, shouldn’t you?

[Explanation]

笔者利用“Welcome to the unit.”的四张图片引出附加疑问句的部分用法。引导学生关注句子中的附加疑问句部分,并运用在第一环节所教授的语调规则进行反复诵读、理解并体会黑体部分在不同句子中的意义及功能的异同。学生基本上可以利用已有的语法知识推断某些黑体部分在句子中的语法功能及其含义。若有疑问,学生之间可以先讨论,确实无法解决时再寻求老师的帮助。(PPT9—13, 用“welcome to the unit” 的情景引出附加疑问句的语调和不同的构成类型。PPT14—17,呈现一篇情景对话含有附加疑问句,教师可让学生快速理解对话内容,运用正确的语调进行朗读,关注划线的部分,深刻体会。)

 

Step4 Question Tags  

Ask the students to read and research the given sentences about Question tags. Discuss some laws of the use of question tags.

Someone ought to clean it today, oughtn’t they/shouldn’t they?

1. 当陈述句的主语是everybody、 everyone,、someone,、no one,、nobody、 somebody 或不定人称代词时,附加疑问句中的主语一般用they,但在很正式的语体中也可使用he。如果主语是everything、something、 anything、 nothing、 this、that时,附加疑问句的主语用it。

The car has hardly been cleaned for a few days, has it?

2. 当陈述句带有seldom、hardly、never、rarely、 little、nobody、nowhere、 few,、nothing 等否定词或半否定词时,附加疑问句的动词用肯定形式。

Their father has a new car, and they clean it for him, don’t they?

It must have just rained, and the car is very dirty, isn’t it?

3. 陈述部分是并列句时,附加疑问部分的主语应与邻近分句的主语一致。

Only lazy people say they’ll work tomorrow, don’t they?

I think you should enjoy working, shouldn’t you?

4. 陈述句部分是复合句时,附加疑问句部分的主语与主句主语一致。但如果陈述部分的主语是I think、I suppose,、I believe 等结构时,附加疑问句部分则应与从句中的主语和谓语动词一致。但要注意否定前置的情况。

Their father has a new car, doesn’t he/hasn’t he?

Mark has to clean it, doesn’t he?

5. 陈述句部分有表示“有”含义的动词 have/has时,附加疑问句中的动词部分可以用

have/has/had 或do/does/did形式。而当陈述句部分的 have/has不表示“有”时,附加疑问句中的动词部分需用do/does/did形式。hey?

It must be his turn, isn’t it?

6. 陈述部分的动词是must be, 且表示目前情况的猜测时,附加疑问句部分的动词要用be的各种人称变化形式。

It must have just rained, hasn’t it?

It must have rained yesterday, didn’t it?

7. 陈述部分的谓语是“must+ have done”, 表示对过去情况的猜测时,附加疑问句中的动词部分需用did(有明确的时间状语) 或have/ has(无明确的过去时间状语或有与现在相关的时间状语)。

Clean it now, will you?

Let us clean it now, will you?

Don’t clean it now, will you?

Let’s clean it now, shall we?

8. 在祈使句中,附加疑问句部分一般用“will you”、“won’t you”、“would you”, 有时也可用“can you”、“can’t you”、“could you”等,可根据语气选择。如果是“Let’s” 开头的句子用“shall we”。

[Explanation]

学生读完对话情景之后,根据学生对情景的理解程度,可以考虑如何处理情景中的句子所反映的语法规则,从语言情景的呈现转向语言呈现的过程。笔者采用两种策略:一是直接讲解,多数学生根据有关语法知识,完全可以理解情景中的含义,只需要作出总结(1、2两条规则)。二是采用对比讲解,对于涉及的3、4、5、6、7、8六条语法规则就可运用此法。

(PPT18—27通过呈现对话中的划线句子,让学生讨论,发现特点,确定附加疑问句的规则,先出示句子,再展现规则。)

 

Step 5 Practice

There are some special usages of question tags. Ask students to go through the grammar usage and finish the following.

Now let’s do some exercises and you will choose a letter to decide which one you will do.

[Explanation]

理解和掌握语法规则之后,学生还需要在具体的语境中灵活地运用这些规则。在此阶段,适当的习题训练能进一步帮助学生强化和巩固所学的语法规则。需要注意的是,设计的练习既要有一定的情景性、趣味性,又要多样性。笔者采用展示A、B、C、D、E、F、G、H八张可爱的女生头像让学生先选择字母再根据所选字母确定所答的题目,增加了神秘感。并且有一个字母图片下没有设置题目,选到的同学会觉得自己非常幸运。还有一道题是规则中没有提到的:如果学生选到了,不会做,老师可让学生发表自己的看法,最后老师作简要讲解。这一环节是本节课的高潮部分。(PPT28—37,让学生任选一字母确定所做的题目,例如:I choose B, 点击B头像,会出现题目,再点击右下角的按钮,返回选题。并不是每个图像下都有题可做,当选到没有题的时候,学生感到非常幸运,气氛非常热烈。)

 

Step 6 Consolidation                                                       

1.  Read the following dialogue and complete it with the correct question tags.(P51 Part A)

Eric: Carol, come and look at this old photo, will you? Look, this is Mum and this is Dad. But I don’t know anyone else in the photo. You know who they are, (1)_______ _______?

Carol: Let me have a look. Wow! That’s Uncle Sam. He looks really young in this photo. Now he’s in Paris, (2)_________ _________?

Eric:  Yeah. He went there last month. Oh, I know who the boy is.

Carol:  Which boy? The taller one ?

Eric:  No. The one who is standing with Mum and dad. He’s our cousin Rob.

Carol: Oh, yes. He doesn’t like talking too much, (3) _________ _______?

Eric:  No, he is very quiet. Who is the slim young lady? She looks pretty, (4)________ __________ ?

Carol: You mean the one sitting in the chair reading?I think she’s Ellen, Mum’s best friend. The man beside her is Dave. They’re married, now, (5)_______ ________?

Eric:  Yes. Are they coming to spend their summer holiday here as usual?

Carol:  Yes, but they didn’t come last summer.  Dave has really changed a lot.He’s put on a lot of weight. You can hardly recognize him in the photo, (6)_________ _________?

Eric:   Everyone in the picture seems to have put on some weight, (7)________ ________?

Carol:  That’s the interesting thing about old photos—— you can always see how much time has passed since they were taken, (8)__________ __________?

Eric:    Exactly!

2.      Pay special attention to the underlined sentences and change them with question tags.

3.      Read the new dialogues in correct intonation.

[Explanation]

经过了情景式的语言材料呈现、对比体验式的语法规则讲解和多样化的巩固练习,语法教学似乎大功告成。但如果仅满足于这个阶段,那只不过是实现了掌握规则、应付考试的目的,还远达不到提高语言实际运用能力的目的。语感的形成才能真正反映学生语言运用能力的提高。因此笔者充分利用课本“P51 Part A”的练习,重新设计了部分情景对话练习,运用正确的语音语调,优化语言的输入,激发语感的形成。通过朗读、背诵,强化语感形成。

 

Step 7 Homework

1. Finish workbook exercises on P104. Complete the sentences with the correct question tag.

2. There are some special usages of question tags. Ask students to look up them in some materials.

[Explanation]

课外作业设计了两个部分,完成workbook的练习属于基本练习,由于面对的是刚刚进入高一的学生,附加疑问句的用法,只介绍了部分常规用法,还有深层次的语法规则或高考中的考点,让学生利用课余时间进行探究式学习,来解决第二部分的练习。


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